Toenail Fungus Reasons

Frequently Asked Questions

  1. QUESTION:
    How do you get a toenail fungus?
    i just want to full description from the deep process of toenail fungus.

    • ANSWER:
      There are a lot of reasons on how you could get a toenail fungus. One main reason why people have this or suffers from this condition is that they have a very poor hygiene on there body especially on there foot. It is also cause by infections from fungi that could be found outside our environment.

  2. QUESTION:
    how can i get rid of fungus nails in a healthy way?
    I have one toenail with fungus and i was wondering if anyone out there has a natural or homemade solution cuz the medication can be unhealthy for a woman of childbearing age which I am.

    • ANSWER:
      You can put Vaporub on it twice a day, and then cover with a bandage to keep it from rubbing off. Also, trim the nail back as far as possible (not so far as to give you an ingrown toenail, of course) because the nail bed swells and exerts pressure against the toenail, causing you pain. This has worked for enough people that Doctor Gott (a newspaper advice columnist) has recommended it to those who aren't able to use other methods for whatever reason.

  3. QUESTION:
    How to get of the beginning toenail fungus?
    I had surgery for 2 ingrown toenails and since my father has fungus I also caught it because I was at risk. I have small areas of fungus on my toe where the surgery was taken place. How can I get rid of the fungus? My doctor said to rub vapor rub in it, and I did yet I still caught the fungus (he told me before I got the fungus).

    • ANSWER:
      Like anything, it may depend on your individual circumstances, but there are basically 3 options for the treatment of fungal toenails:

      1.Using topical anti-fungals. This is the least invasive, but also the least effective method. The reason being that it is very difficult to physically deliver the medication to where the fungus is often “hiding” underneath the nail plate, or even in the nail root/matrix underneath the skin at the very base of the nail plate. Topical meds do not penetrate the nail plate or skin to any significant degree, despite their claims otherwise.

      2.Oral Medications, such as the Lamisil tablet. Commonly used the past 10-15 years, it does work quite well in eradicating toenail fungus. It works about 2 out of 3 times, and needs to be taken for 3 months, 1 pill per day. It is quite expensive, but covered by most insurances. Your insurance may require it to be pre-authorized by them because of its cost. It’s main drawback is that it may put extra stress on the liver, and may in a very small percentage of patients, cause liver damage. However, the liver may be monitored by doing blood tests regularly to measure the liver enzymes ALT and AST. If the enzyme levels rise above normal, the medication may be stopped immediately, and the liver should recover quickly and the enzyme levels should normalize.

      3.Laser treatment that is now FDA approved for toenail fungus. It has about an 80-85% effectiveness rate (slightly better that oral Lamisil), without any long-term or short-term adverse effects. There is no risk of damage to the liver, or other internal organs. The patient might feel some warmth in the nail during the laser procedure, but that’s about it. It is currently the gold-standard in treating toenail fungus—the most effective form of treatment. The only drawback from a patient perspective is that it is considered cosmetic, and not covered by insurance. In its infancy, only one laser was FDA approved, and the procedure was available from only a select few podiatric physicians, and the cost sometime exceeded ,000 per treatment. However, the advent of new competing lasers, and more podiatrists offering the procedure in their offices has brought down the price due to competition. Consult with a podiatrist in your area that offers the procedure to determine how many treatments may be needed and the overall cost, depending on the severity of your nail fungus infection.

      Good luck!

      Alexandria Family Podiatry
      www.alexandriafamilypodiatry.com

  4. QUESTION:
    Could a nail fungus be the reason is my toenail plate not sticking to my toenail bed?
    I just noticed that on one of my big toes it looked lighter on the edge. When I investigated it further I saw I was able to pull the nail plate away from the nail bed rather easily, without pain. This has never happened before. Could it be a nail fungus starting? My husband has had a nail fungus for years. Can I get it from him?
    I also have psorasis. I heard that it can cause nail problems too. Anyone else heard of this?

    • ANSWER:
      It sure can be fungus and, yes, it's contagious!

      Try this:

      Get a bottle of iodine and a plastic drinking straw.

      Cut the end of the straw so it's like a little spoon.

      Pour a tiny amount of iodine on the straw.

      Gently lift your loose nail, and insert the straw-spoon as far as you comfortably can, then pour in the iodine.

      Let it sit until it dries, then bandage it with gauze - no tight, waterproof bandaging.

      Change twice a day. Do this a few days, maybe a week, and see if it's getting better.

      It will kill that ol' fungus when nothing else will!

      Good luck, kiddo!

      .

  5. QUESTION:
    How can you get rid of fungus under toenails?
    We've tried several different things bought over the counter to get rid of fungus under the toenails and we just can't seem to find one that works. If anyone out there knows of a home remedy please let us know on the secret of getting rid of this problem.

    • ANSWER:
      The topical creme, Lamasil should work, but it takes a very long time, they say at least 6 months. I took the one prescribed by a doctor, sorry I can't remember the name of it, but it was a pill, and it took 3 months, but it worked. I found the Lamasil never worked, because you could never keep it on your toes enough. Ask your doctor about the pills tho, they were very expensive, but like I said, they worked, and it hasn't come back in over 4 years. In the meantime, try "sanding" down your toenails with a nail file. I think one reason you get the fungus, is because your toenails are too thick, so by thinning them out, this will alleviate some pain.....good luck

  6. QUESTION:
    why do some people get toe nail fungus but not others?
    i was wondering if anyone knew anything about genetic predisposure to getting a fungal infection of the nails? like, lack of resistance. is it true what heard about that?
    my friend has a very apparent infection in her toenails, ive borrowed her shoes without the thought crossing my mind it could be spread, many times.
    that seems like the best way to spread it but my toes are untouched.
    thank you for the serious answers.

    • ANSWER:
      People who wear socks and don't allow the feet to completely dry after the bath, and before putting on socks, may get toenail fungi.

      Also, athletic people whose feet perspire. A fungus grows best in a moist, dark location.

      The same conditions that lead to athletes foot, will also lead eventually to toenail fungus.

      Can you catch toenail fungus? Yes. The most common way is by sharing toenail clippers.

      An infection and a fungus are not the same thing. I still wouldn't recommend that you continue to share shoes.

      Very few of the fungi that are found in dirt and dead plant material are the cause of toenail fungus. The ones that are, have to get past the persons natural immune system, via a skin perforation or a cracked or broken nail.

      So, the reason some people get them and others don't are many. You may have a very strong immune system, and keep your nails short so they are less likely to become perforated. Make sure your toenails are thoroughly dry, and don't go barefoot in the dirt.

      Fingernail salons are the cause of most of the current rage of fingernail fungi because they use emery boards and other nail supplies on more than one person. So it pays to be aware of how your salon operates in regards to reusing equipment.

  7. QUESTION:
    How do nails attach to the nail bed?
    So my toenail got bruised, drained fluid out, now like two-thirds of the upper right of nail isn't attach to nail bed (but left side is).

    I read that the new nail growing will attach itself to the nail bed while the part unattached at the moment is useless.

    So what makes the new nail growing attach itself to the nail bed? I'm worried it won't.

    • ANSWER:
      FINGERNAILS
      Anatomically fingernails and toenails, which are made of a tough protein called keratin and are produced from living skin cells in the fingers and toes, are made up of many different parts:

      The free edge is the part of the nail that extends past the finger, beyond the nail plate. There are no nerve endings in the nail - this is the growing part of the nail still under the skin at the nail's proximal end.
      eponychium or cuticle, is the fold of skin at the proximal end of the nail.
      paronychium is the fold of skin on the sides of the nail.
      hyponychium is the attachment between the skin of the finger or toe and the distal end of the nail.
      nail plate is the hard and translucent portion, composed of keratin.
      nail bed is the adherent connective tissue that underlies the nail.
      lunula is the crescent shaped whitish area of the nail bed (when visible)
      nail fold a fold of hard skin overlapping the base and sides of a fingernail or toenail.
      In common usage the word nail usually refers to the nail plate only.

      GROWTH
      Nails grow at an average rate of 0.03 centimeters a day (3 cm every 100 days).[1] Fingernails require 3 to 6 months to regrow completely. Toenails require 12 to 18 months. Actual growth rate is dependent upon age, season, exercise level, and hereditary factors.
      This growth record can show the history of recent health and physiological imbalances, and has been used as a diagnostic tool since ancient times.[2] Major illness will cause a deep groove to form across the nails. Miscoloration, thinning, thickening, brittleness, splitting, grooves, Mees' lines, small white spots, receded lunula, clubbing (convex), flatness, spooning (concave) can indicate illness in other areas of the body, nutrient deficiencies, drug reaction or poisoning, or merely local injury. Nails can also become thickened (onychogryphosis), loosened (onycholysis), infected with fungus (onychomycosis) or degenerative (onychodystrophy); for further information see nail diseases.

      Fingernail INJURIES
      The fingernail and the underlying nail bed are the most commonly injured part of the hand.

      Nail that has torn or separated from nail bed
      It can be very painful to tear or rip your nail. A nail may separate from the nail bed for many reasons, including injuries- which is your case:

      INJURIES.
      Separation caused by injury is common in people who have long fingernails. The nail may pry away from the nail bed when it is accidentally hit or jammed.
      Severe or repetitive toe stubbing may cause a toenail to separate from the nail bed. This is also common in athletes who wear shoes that are not roomy enough.
      The usual treatment for a separated nail involves removing the nail, keeping the area dry to prevent infection, and waiting for a new nail to grow. The infection or skin condition that caused the separated nail will also need to be treated. Home treatment often helps relieve pain, promote healing, and prevent infection.

      ******************************
      Once a nail separates from the nail bed for whatever reason, it will not reattach. A new nail will have to grow back in its place. Nails grow back slowly. It takes about 6 months for a fingernail and up to 18 months for a toenail to grow back.

  8. QUESTION:
    What does it mean if my dog bites his nails?
    For some reason, lately he has been biting his nails making them super sharp and cracked. I always cut his nails when they're too long but for some reason he has gotten into the habit of doing this, any explanations?
    I trim his nails close to the vein so that is not the issue I think.

    • ANSWER:
      Take a good close look to make sure nothing is bothering her paws, toes, in between toes, under nails, etc.

      If nothing is visibly wrong, it could be just out of anxiety or boredom. I used to have a dog that bit only her back toenails, but not too bad and it kept them short for me so I didn't mind so much haha.If your dog has allergies (even just seasonal, like to grass) it could manifest as itchy skin or feet. There could also be a fungus or some other irritation on the toes causing trouble.

      If they start to split, peel, or crack, use an emery board (nail file) to smooth them back down to prevent him from hurting himself when scratching.

      In the meantime, see if you can provide some extra chew toys or bones if possible and deter the behavior. If you catch him chewing his nails, divert his attention. If he takes the bait and chews on toy, plays with you, or chews on a bone instead, lots of praise and an extra treat!

      For when he's unsupervised or crated, hard bones that aren't actually food (like a Nylabone) that is large enough for him is great to keep him occupied chewing.

      If the chewing gets too excessive or harmful to his nails/toes, try some training taste deterrent spray like Bitter Apple and put it on his nails. Most dogs hate the taste and will stop chewing where it's put. It has to be re-applied regularly or they will start up again when they can't smell it there anymore.

      A few new toys and some extra walks and play time also can't hurt.

  9. QUESTION:
    How do you get rid of fungal infections on the feet?
    My boyfriend has terrible feet and doesn't take good care of them. He has fungal infections on most of his toenails and on the skin of his feet as well. I'm looking for ways that we can get rid of the infection. Preferably hollistic but I wouldn't mind buying some sort of anti fungal cream if anyone knows of anything. I've heard that teatree oil can help. Any suggestions are greatly appreciated. Thanks!

    • ANSWER:
      First he needs to use something to get rid of the existing infection,
      but he also needs to change his shoe wearing habits. He needs to go barefoot as much as possible. The problem is caused by having his feet encased in closed shoes for too much time each day. The spores of the fungus are found everywhere, but the reason they usually only take hold on feet is because they only thrive in a warm, sweaty, enclosed environment.

  10. QUESTION:
    There has to be a cure for cancer somewhere, so why hasn't it been found? What is holding it up?
    Who or what is holding back the cure and for what good reason? I think there is one and some certain people don't want it out to the public or use in the public. I think it is a selfish few who are not letting this out.

    • ANSWER:
      Why do we not see questions on medicine forums like,"Why is there no cure for high blood pressure/hypertension, diabetes, COPD, asthma, toenail fungus, heart attacks, stroke, malaria, hepatitis, etc?

      We have not cured ANY of these disease. Cancer is even more complicated since it is not one disease but a whole host of diseases that share certain traits.

      There is no conspiracy. There will NEVER be A cure for cancer- we will need many. Even then, even if we find a cure for one cancer, it will not PREVENT that cancer from arising, so there will always be a need for cancer docs to keep treating in any case.

      Rather than demeaning those of us who devote our lives to taking care of cancer patients, maybe you should be thankful for what advances have been made, be disappointed that they aren't made faster, and actually HELP work on finding a cure- in the lab doing real research, not in someone's safe under Fort Knox (FYI, it isn't there).

      Blessings

  11. QUESTION:
    What is the cellular structure of Fungi cells?
    How are fungi cells set up?
    Are they normal cells, containing a nucleus, chromosome, cytoplasm, vacuoles, mitochondria, etc... or are they plant cells containing chloroplast and a cell wall.... or are they something entirely different?

    • ANSWER:
      The fungi are all heterotrophic
      They have a filamentous cell structure that is essentially undifferentiated
      They have chitin cell walls rather than cellulose
      This is why they are included in their own kingdom which in some ways is closer to animals than plants. For example insect and other arthropod skeletons are made of chitin.

      Fungal Hyphae

      A single fungal filament is called a hypha (plural hyphae). The chitin cell wall encloses a cytoplasm that may be undivided (Zygomycetes - molds), partially divided by perforated cross-walls (Ascomycetes - morels, cup fungi, blue molds) or fully divided (Basidiomycetes - mushrooms). The cytoplasm contains one or more haploid nuclei. If there are no cross-walls the cell structure is is said to be "coenocytic". Many basidiomycetes have hyphae built up of uninucleate cells. The yeasts are exceptional among the Ascomycetes in that they are usually uninucleate and unicellular (non-filamentous).
      Hyphae grow at their tips and branch to form a mass of interwoven strands that is called mycelium. This is a culture of Pythium isolated from Taxus.

      In many fungi the mycelium will form special structures in which nuclei will fuse to form diploid cells. These undergo meiosis to form haploid spores which can be transported over huge distances.Hyphae all tend to look alike and fruiting bodies are often the easiest way to distinguish different fungi. This is the stinkhorn, Phallus impudicus.impudicus
      .

      Some fungi, particularly yeasts exist predominantly as single cells and never form large fruiting bodies.

      Fungal diseases
      For some reason human fungal diseases (like yeast infections, toenail fungus and athletes foot) have become more common in recent years. However it is probably true to say that we suffer from more viral and bacterial diseases than fungal.

      It is the other way round with plants; fungi cause many more diseases and losses from these diseases are worse than for bacteria and viruses. Fungal pathogens can get past the plant's defenses more readily than the other organisms. Their hyphae produce enzymes that can digest both plant cuticle and cell walls so that they can penetrate the surface and the internal tissues of healthy plants

  12. QUESTION:
    Can a toenail disease be infectious when you're wearing public ice skate shoes?
    it's weird, i went ice skating when i was in 5th grade and i was about to graduate, for some weird reason my toenails started to crack, and i was stupid enough to peel my toenails off. i thought i was decaying. XD and right now it has been 3 years, and it hasn't grown back.

    • ANSWER:
      Yes, foot and nail fungus can spread when you're wearing rented shoes like at an ice skating rink, bowling alley etc. See a doctor to get some meds, walk barefoot & in sandals a lot (it's a fungus, it likes dark, warm, slightly damp places but will die off when the skin is exposed to fresh air and light -people are inclined to hide their feet when they have fungus & it makes their feet look bad, even wearing closed shoes in summer weather, but that makes it only worse), and don't share shoes!

  13. QUESTION:
    Are there any reasons for someone to get their toenails removed?
    My friend is getting her toenails removed and it just seems odd.

    • ANSWER:
      I worked with a lady who's mother got her toenails removed because of constant fungus problems under her nails. It caused her toenails to grow all crooked and it was painful to her.

  14. QUESTION:
    How does one treat a two-layered toenail?
    For some reason, at some point about two years ago, a "bubble" formed inside my toenail. It was whitish. I attempted to cut the whole nail off. I succeeded with some pain. I had hoped that it would grow back properly. However, it grew back the same way. I have been cutting it over and over again. The "trapped bubbly" layer is now at the base of that toenail. Any solutions?

    Thanks for those of you out there who actually care to give good, intelligent answers. They really help. Thank you.

    • ANSWER:
      See a chiropodist...it could be a fungus and there are treatments....

  15. QUESTION:
    Whats the best cure or technique for toe nail foot fungus?
    My mom has an inherited trait from her mother, shes been trying different scrubs and lotions, nothing seems to work, any helpful ideas? Thanks.

    • ANSWER:
      It's very hard to get rid of toenail fungus for a number of reasons. (It loves the dark warm shoe environment.) It's also underneath the toenail which makes it very hard to treat.

      There are a number of different treatments - everything from some pretty serious drugs to some weird home remedies - but whatever treatment you choose, you also need to look after your feet. Keep them dry (use a hairdryer after bathing or showering), try to wear shoes and socks as little as possible, wash your socks on very hot temperatures, keep your nails clean and short.

      As for the treatments themselves, Zetaclear is good, and so is ClearZal. (I think they are both better than using a home remedy and they aren't harmful like the prescription meds.)

      Check this site out for more treatment info:

      http://toenailfungusremedy.blogspot.com

  16. QUESTION:
    Is it possible to catch toenail fungus?
    Hello,
    My boyfriend of five years has really horrible toe fungus. Doctors have told him its the worst they have ever seen. He is too scared to treat it with medicine because in order to recieve the prescription you have to have blood work done every month or so, and he has a great fear of needles. When we first started dating it was on one foot and now it has spread to both.

    I am curious to know if it is possible to spread to another person. Normally one of us will sleep with socks on, but sometimes one of us will forgot and our bare feet touched. Do I have reason for concern?

    Thanks for your help!

    • ANSWER:
      Yes my husband has the same problem and after 11 years of being married I am showing signs of my feet drying out, bumps ect.
      Have him soak his feet in crushed up garlic and a little water.
      The garlic is something that your body itself will not try to fight because it is a helper to us, putting your feet in it, since the pores are so big in the feet helps clean out the blood stream as well as fighting the infection you can see.
      I do recommend wearing socks when he does have a break out, but I have learned that it also depends on your bodies constitution, if it is good you won't get it.

  17. QUESTION:
    How can I get my nails to really be healthy and grow?
    They're always peeling and my cuticles are always so dry.

    • ANSWER:
      The condition of nails reflect the quality of tissue production in the body as nails are considered to be the waste product of bones (asthi dhatu) Healthy nails are pink,smooth and evenly shaped. Healthy nails are often a sign of good health, while bad nails are often a tip off to more serious problems. Dermatologists say healthy nails are an important part of overall health. The steps in cultivating and maintaining healthy nails are quite simple.

      Many less than desirable nail conditions can be avoided through proper care, but some actually indicate an illness that requires attention. But a little basic nail care can go a long way to keeping your nails in healthy condition. Keep nails on the shorter side, which are easier to care for. Soak toenails if they are thick or difficult to cut, if you are diabetic, you may need a health care professional to help with trimming diseased nails. Like a great new haircut or a terrific skin care regimen, healthy,well-manicured nails are an integral part of a neat, pulled-together appearance- one that can work as an asset in both the social and the business world.

      There are several nail problems that are caused due to hereditary factors, lack of proper care, negligence and vitamin and protein deficiencies in your diet. After diet, stress is the next important factor causing nail problems. Minerals, calcium, vitamins all are the essential components of our balanced diet. Consume a high fiber diet with plenty of green leafy vegetables and reduce your weight if you are overweight. If you are concerned that your diet may not be balanced and healthy you should consult a medical or nutritional professional.

      Toenails are a great indicator of the health of your feet. Toenails of people of all ages can undergo a range of changes, some of which are relatively common. Major toenail problem culprits are incorrectly fitting shoes, which press too tightly on the toenails. The main nutritional tip of nail care is to acquire plenty of vitamins such as vitamin A, vitamin C, and vitamin B12, as all these works on your finger and toenails. The fungi that cause onychomycosis affect the toenails about four times more often than fingernails and, like many organisms that cause disease, they grow where it's warm and moist. Most often, nail fungus appears in the toenails because socks and shoes keep the toenails dark, warm, and moist.

      Also nails can reveal a lot about the body's internal health like healthy nails are often a sign of good health that may require high protein diet while bad nails often shows sign of serious health problems. Toenail fungus is a living organism that thrives in dark, damp environments such as under and around nails. Nail Fungus is a tough condition to have, not only it damages your nail, but it is also an embarrassing problem that affects around 13% of people across America. Nail fungus is more popular among old adults for several reasons, including decreased blood circulation, much years of vulnerability to fungi and because nails may rise more slowly and thicken with aging, making them more vulnerable to transmission. Having realistic expectations about how long it will take to get rid of nail fungus is as important as following your doctor's instructions. In our view, Zeta Clear is the first and best option for natural nail fungus treatment.

      There are many natural remedies and supplements, which can be helpful for you to give natural nail care. These are some of the vitamins and proteins which can be helpful for you to get healthy nail care. There are many Herbal care products in the market, which ensures healthy nails. Zeta Clear Nail Care includes the concentrated essence of a substance, which creates a relieving effect on our nails and toes and brings about the desired effect. Apply the Zeta Clear with brush applicator to affected nail three times per day as or as your health care provide suggests.

  18. QUESTION:
    What do I do if people refuse to take off their shoes?
    I recently institued a no shoe policy since my son started crawling. We are having a party next month and I already am getting some flack. My sister in law said she refuses to take her shoes off. Furthermore, she said no one has to at her house. Any advice?

    • ANSWER:
      I remember reading this question somewhere in the past, like dear abby or something, and the response was that sometimes people have reasons for not wanting to take shoes off (foot infections, toenail fungus, even arthritis without good support can be painful, other reasons) and to go buy some super cheap flip flops or slippers to sit by the door for those guests, then they will have no reason to complain.

  19. QUESTION:
    Is it okay to go to a spa with nasty feet?
    I have to go to a spa since I'm a bridesmaid soon. My feet aren't ugly, I just have a scar on both my feet that look like corn. But it was from when I was a kid I scarred it. And I'm so insecure to letpeople touch my toes. Now I really do want a pedicure since I've never done it, would they be freake out

    Also would be great help to tell me how I can get rid of my scar !

    • ANSWER:
      Is the scar protruding from your foot? I guess I'm confused because you said it looks like corn.

      As far as going to the spa... Of course it's okay! Can you imagine the disgusting things they have to see? People have fungus, ingrown toenails, nasty hair, etc. Your scar does not dictate how clean or touchable your feet are. Believe me, they see way way worse. If you're still self-conscious about it when you get there, make a joke about it while the lady is massaging or painting them. Maybe you could tell her the funny or interesting story of how you got it.

      To get rid of the scar you should try rubbing vitamin E oil on it. It's proven and recommended by doctors to help reduce the appearance of scars. You can usually find products geared toward scars in the First Aide section of your drug store. Next time you're at your family doctor for whatever reason, bring up your scar and ask him if he can recommend something for you. He might be able to write out a prescription for a topical cream.

  20. QUESTION:
    My big toe nail cracked in half what do i do?
    It really hurts and it cracked from the the lower right going up and stops half way through. I really don't want to get it taken off. Is there anything else i can do?
    I hit it. Well i was playin volleyball and i was wearing converse and my toe jammed it i guess my shoes are to small.

    • ANSWER:
      Hello,
      I'm so sorry, I know that must really hurt. First you could soak your foot in some warm salt water. It would help with the pain, help keep any infection from starting, and it will soften your toe nail. And as soon as you can, you need to make a doctors appt. Toe nails don't just crack like that for no reason. You might have a toenail fungus. There are a few other things i can think of that might cause this, but the first one that comes to mind is hitting your toe on something really hard, and you didn't say that was the case. Diabetics can also have alot of trouble with their feet and/or toenails. Yes, you can just wrap your toe loosely and the toe nail will eventually fall off and a new one will grow under it. But if it cracked like that for no apparent reason. I would make an appt to see my doctor and find out why it cracked. And the doctor could give you something for the pain while that toenail is growing back in, cause it's not going to heal over night. Whatever you do, try to keep that toenail covered, like keep a sock on it, so that it doesn't hang on the covers on your bed at night. Good luck and hope this helps

  21. QUESTION:
    What to do about busted up toenails?
    Over the years, my big toenails have been abused with soccer, skiing, and hiking. Both have "lifted up".

    Both big toes are healthy at the inner half where they are connected to the bed underneath. Whereas, both are fungused at the outer half where there essentially is an air space.

    Vicks Vapor Rub kills off the fungus pretty quick, but leaves a yellow or black fungal residue.

    Is there any way to get the outer half of the nail to rejoin the bed underneath?

    Thanks.

    • ANSWER:
      Hello,

      It sounds as if you could clip the 'free-floating' outer nails off, just leaving the inside halves which are healthy. It's easy for me to say, I know digging into your toenail bed can be very painful !

      The advantage of this would be, that you could be sure the skin under the 'floating' nails was not also infected with fungus, (or treat it if it was). One reason for newly-grown nail to remain 'floating,' might be that the skin of the nail-bed underneath it wasn't healthy.

      If the fungus infection has grown down and into the nail-root, where new nail is being made, then it could be difficult to eradicate the fungus by topical applications, and you might need to ask for Griseofulvin tablets or Sporanox capsules or similar from your doctor. The fungus-antibiotic drug by mouth, would find its way into the nail roots and the freshly-made nails.

      I am trying to say that I think the fungus needs to be eradicated in (a) the underlying skin of the nail-beds, (b) the visible nails, and (c) the hidden nail roots.

      Sometimes the original 'lifting up' was caused by a bruise to the big toe, i.e. a blood clot collecting between the nail bed and the nail. It sounds as if you have the kind of sporting life that could cause toe-bruising quite often. When better I think you should consider more protection to your big toes. :-)

      Hope this helps. Belliger (retired UK GP)

  22. QUESTION:
    Why does Chuck Liddell paint his toenails?
    I was just wondering. It looks really cool and makes him a little more of a unique look from the other fighters, or at least his feet look different.

    • ANSWER:
      There are many reasons why one might want to.

      1. As a tribute to someone. Lot of fighters grew beards when Evan Tanner died, so that could be a reason.

      2. I have heard it can protect the nail from fungus, but I don't know if it has any truth to it.

      3. Some people do it as a good luck charm.

      4. One of the people I used to go to school with painted his toes for a while because he dropped a weight on his foot and several of his toe nails looked black, so he painted over them to make it look even. Kinda a funny reason, but I thought it was a neat reason to do that.

  23. QUESTION:
    Why is my big toe red, a little swollen, hot, painful?
    I've had a fungi toe for years and it was never a problem except maybe it is ugly.
    Since last night I started having pain in it and at first the area by the nailbed hurt (so its not an ingrown nail) but now the whole nail hurts. My toe is red and very warm to the touch. Its hard to move now.
    I dont have a fever or swollen ankles or anything like that.
    What could it be?

    • ANSWER:
      Without being able to actually look at it and examine it first hand, it sounds as though you have an infected toe. The redness, swelling, pain and heat would indicate infection most likely. It may be unrelated to the toenail fungus that you suffer from, or it may be related. The only way to determine that is to have it checked out by a doctor, preferably a specialist (Podiatrist).

      The other thing it could be is an injury. However, I am guessing that if you stubbed it on something, or it got stepped on or injured in any way in the recent past, that you would have mentioned it. If you did not mention it and actually did sustain an injury or some trauma to that toe, then it is possible that this is the reason for the swelling, redness, pain and heat.

      If you can take an NSAID (non steroidal anti inflammatory drug) like Motrin (Ibuprofen) or Aleve (Naproxen Sodium) then take some. I would also recommend applying ice to the toe for 15 minutes and then taking the ice off for the rest of the hour and the applying it again for 15 minutes and repeating this process until you have to go to work, school or to bed. The ice will help reduce the inflammation as will the NSAID. It is possible that if you do this for a few days it will resolve itself, but if it gets worse or does not get better within a few days of the NSAID and Ice treatment, then get to the doc.

  24. QUESTION:
    I have a sister age 30 and on her 10 toes nails she have fungus her nails disapear and i want to help her?
    what can i do for my sister so she don't feel embarrassed and she could date again.

    • ANSWER:
      The first thing that you should do is to verify that she has fungus infections on all of her toenails. As a rule, fungal infections of the feet don't attack all of the nails, but only a few of them. There are numerous other conditions that can lead to misshapen nail plates, and you'd hate to have your sister be exposed to possibly toxic antifungal drugs for the wrong reason. Why not take her to a dermatologist for a valid diagnosis.

  25. QUESTION:
    Why do the tips of my toenails turn black?
    I soak and clean with a file. The discoloration is still there

    • ANSWER:
      When the nails are exposed to a warm moist environment, a fungus can develop on the nail or under its outer edge. Depending on the type of fungus, the nail may turn yellow, gray, brown, or black. Topical ointments and antifungal powders may help contain a fungus infection.

      To prevent fungal growth, it is advisable to:
      Keep the nails dry and clean.
      Change socks often, even several times a day if necessary
      Use an antifungal foot spray or powder.
      Avoid cutting or tearing the skin around the toenails since this may be an entry point for infection.

      Other reasons may be (1) your shoes are too tight (2)If you are a runner, your foot is sliding forward in your shoe titting the top and causing bruising. In any case I would see your doctor if you have pain.

  26. QUESTION:
    What is the best way to get rid of toe nail fungus?

    • ANSWER:
      For some people it can be difficult finding a natural cure to fight the embarrassment, disfigurement and the physical pain of toenail fungus. There are some (unnatural) internal medications available as prescriptions such as

      * itraconazole (Sporonox),
      * fluconazole (Diflucan),
      * griseofulvin (Fulvicin), and
      * terfinabine (Lamisil)

      These medications have been shown to sometimes have side effects such as upset stomach, headaches, and liver damage. Mixing these oral medications with some other drugs can be extremely dangerous. They are very expensive as well, some of them can cost over 0 for just the treatment medications. There is a powerful reason why they are available by prescription only.

      There are alternative, natural products.

      It is important to realize that any toenail fungal cure is dependent on continual daily use until the infected tissue is eradicated, and then still more time until complete new toenails are grown. When it appears that the fungus has been beaten, you must continue using your chosen type of cure until new nails are in place.
      These healthy and wise living tips/methods mentioned above will help eradicate the most persistent fungi on your toenails or fingernails.

  27. QUESTION:
    How do you do your own acrylic nails and what do I need do it with?
    Its more cheaper to it yourself

    • ANSWER:
      How To Apply Acrylic Nails:

      It will take practice before you can get your acrylic nails up to professional quality. Practice makes perfect.

      You will need:

      • Nailbrush
      • Nail Polish Remover
      • Nail Files and Filing 'Block
      • Acrylic Nipper
      • Artificial Nail Tips: Find a size that fits your nail, if this is not possible
      find one that is closest and file it down.
      • Liquid Acrylic
      • Powdered Acrylic
      • Acrylic Brush: To apply the acrylic to your nail.
      • Dampen Dish: To hold the acrylic liquid in
      • Nail Oil: To moisturize your nail after you apply your acrylic nail

      How to apply acrylic nails:

      • First off all you need to prepare your nail by giving it a really neat manicure,
      to remove all the dead skin and to smooth out rough edges.

      • Then remove all previous traces of polish and acrylic
      with a non-acetone nail polish remover.

      • Roughen nails up with a filing block, and trim nails back to the skin,
      not too far though. The reason of cutting your nail back to the skin
      is that if the tip of your acrylic nail decides to break,
      it's not going to take half of your nail off with it.

      • Set your acrylic nail tips out next to your glue ready to apply.

      • Apply just a drop of glue on the tip, from the bottom up
      to the little indentation where the edge of you nail should go.

      • If you apply the acrylic nail wrong you can quickly remove it
      by soaking it in water.

      • Adjust the acrylic nail's length to suit your needs,
      using either an artificial nail tip cutter or toenail clippers.
      File down the rough edges as well, and compare them
      with the rest of your nails, making sure they're even

      • Pour the liquid acrylic into your dish, this stuff is very potent
      so open a few windows as it can give you quite a headache when you apply it!
      Open you container of powder, dip your brush into the liquid acrylic,
      wipe both sides on paper towel. Then dip the brush in the liquid again
      and wipe against the side of the container as you would with your nail polish.

      • Dip the tip of the brush into you powder; a little ball of product should form.
      It should be damp, but not too wet, apply this ball on the edge
      of the acrylic tip and your natural nail.

      • Quickly spread it out and smooth it in, but be careful not to flatten it though,
      wipe your brush to remove excess product.

      • Then repeat the steps over and over to build and copy the natural curve
      of your nail, apply a coat to the tip as well, just not as thick.
      However be careful NOT to apply any acrylic onto the cuticle area!
      You could develop a mold or fungus under the nail if it lifts.

      • After your acrylic has set, and dried, (it should take no longer than ten minutes)
      file the sides of the nail and close to the cuticle with a grit nail file,
      then shape the nail too look natural.

      • Smooth your nail with a filing block then scrub them with soapy water
      and a nailbrush to remove any dust and filings.

      • Remember to apply some nail oil on your cuticles as you just exposed
      them to chemicals and buffering and they will need to retain their moisture.

      • However every two weeks you will need to reapply some acrylic
      to your nails as your nail will grow and move the acrylic nail up.

  28. QUESTION:
    Whats the best thing to do when you see the beginning of an in-grown toe nail?
    The side of my toe is starting to turn red and my sister said to keep putting hydrogen peroxide on it every night and it will go away! I don't necessarily trust my sister so, do you think this is the right thing to do?

    • ANSWER:
      I do use the hydrogen peroxide and there's this ointment called Mupirocin that is fantastic for any scrapes or cuts like that. We first got it when our school had several cases of MRSA, (staph infections), and the dr. told us to put this on any open "ouchies" that we got to cut any chance of infection very quickly. It is prescription only, but a tube lasts forever. Our family of 5 didn't even use a whole tube in a year.
      I would also suggest soaking your foot in warm water, perhaps with Epsom salt, as that can help relieve the swelling. If it's painful, then you can take ibuprofen or tylenol.
      As with any swollen area, you can also put a little ice on it once in a while.
      Now, I'm not recommending you to do this, but I always take a knife and cut out the piece of nail that is digging into my toe flesh. A dr. probably wouldn't recommend you doing it either, but that's what the dr. always ended up having to do to me before I started doing it myself. I haven't had to go to the dr. for them now since I was a teenager.
      If it gets bad, go to the dr. It's not a stupid reason and it can lead to a bad infection. If you get one of the kinds of fungus under your nails, then they can end up costing a lot to treat and perhaps make you lose your nail completely.
      Ask your parent or a school nurse if it goes beyond a little redness or if you think the nail is actually down in the flesh.
      One thing though, check your shoes. If you're wearing shoes with too high of a heel or boots, then when you step down your foot slips toward the front of the shoe and makes a small nudge against your toe and your nail with each step. If you have shoes that are too tight or too small length-wise, then your toes will be curled tightly and the nail is smashed back into the flesh.
      Be sure to keep the toenails trimmed as well.

  29. QUESTION:
    What could unhealthy toenails mean?
    My toenails on my big toes keep dying (turning black/getting infected). I have had them removed a couple of times hoping they would grow back normally, but it just keeps happening. What could this be a sign of?

    • ANSWER:
      Hi Happyhip - There is a fungi which can make the toe nails like you are describing. You will need to complete the course of the treatment. I cannot recall exactly but I believe you have to take the medication for about one month. Please see your doctor.
      The other reasons for black unhealthy toe nails are poor diet and gangrenous toes. I do not believe these to apply to you.

  30. QUESTION:
    Under toe nail fungus infection, how to fight it?
    I noticed that there is something going on under my nail. It is just a begining of the infection. I got apple cider vinegar and mouthwash and I mix it together with some water and just keep my feet in it. I also got Vicks VapoRub and I am gonna be using it at night and at work etc. It is just a begining so I hope that I will be able to compat that. Would it be better to go and see a doctor etc to see what they would tell me? Thanks.

    • ANSWER:
      The best way to get rid of under toe nail fungus infection is to use something that will attack it at the source also known as the root cause. If you dont use something that will attack it that way you will be doing nothing but wasting your time and effort.

      There are a few reasons why this is so.

      The first reason is if you don't kill the root cause of your problem then it will just keep recurring.

      The second reason is that toenail fungus is something that if not treated correctly it will get worse and start to infect the other nails on your feet. By using home remedies you have no way of knowing if it is working or not and being that these home remedies wont be able to penetrate the nail and get to the root cause of your problem your probably adding fuel to the fire.

      Furthermore if you are using a home remedy and it is not working then it's just like not treating it because it will allow the nail fungus more time to get worse and possibly lead to permanent nail damage.

      The best way to get rid of under toenail fungus infection is to learn how to prevent it from happening again and using something that is made specifically for dealing with the problem or the root cause like it should be dealt with.

      You have to be patient in dealing with it because it's not something that will disappear overnight but with persistence and perseverance and the right treatment you can beat this thing before any permanent nail damage is done.

      Here is a website that will answer all of your questions about what I just shared with you as well as a review of a really good treatment for getting rid of a problem like yours for good.

      If you really want to get rid of an under toenail fungus infection you will visit that site and read everything there as well as take the appropriate action.

      I used to have a mild case of toenail fungus and it got out of hand trying to use home remedies. I learned what I just told you the hard way.

      Good Luck!!

  31. QUESTION:
    What happens to feet after you age?
    I've always been wondering...Why do women go and get pedicures? Do feet grow more calluses as you age and you have to get that taken off? Why do they get dry and crack? Does our foot skin keep growing as our ears and noses do?
    ....Plll ease...

    • ANSWER:
      One reason women get pedicures is that as we get older, it gets harder and harder to bend down and care for our own feet.

      Wearing nylons or synthetic-fiber socks can make your feet and toenails more prone to fungus diseases, principally athlete's foot on skin areas and toenail fungus beneath the nail bed.

      One symptom of athlete's foot is red cracks between the toes, but another is dry, flaky skin all over your feet but mainly on the sides and bottoms.

      Lotrimin and Lamisil are both effective medications for fighting athlete's foot. You also have to be diligent about washing and drying your feet, wearing clean cotton or wool hosiery, and treating the insides of your shoes with the spray form of the medication.

      Once you've cleared up the athlete's foot (if that's what you have) you can keep your feet softer and more crack-free with daily applications of any good hand and body lotion.

      Badly-fitting shoes can cause calluses and corns that are hard to get rid of. My feet have grown slowly over the years, but I have gained pounds and pounds during that time as well. I have quite a collection of shoes I can no longer fit into. To keep on wearing too-tight shoes is false economy!

  32. QUESTION:
    what is the best way to get rid of toe fungus?
    what is the best way to get rid of toe fungus ??
    I have tried Tee Tree Oil it calmed it down but did not take it away and its mad expensive.

    I think its in the blood and i dont know if like creams and stuff will take it away.

    Please help

    • ANSWER:
      My mother's toenail and fingernail fungus was one of the symptoms of low stomach acid. Low stomach acid is one of the reasons for an overgrowth of fungus (candida) in the intestines which can spread throughout the body (systematic candida). Taking digestive enzyme supplements with betaine hydrochloric acid to increase stomach acid with each meal stopped the fungus in its tracks within a few weeks and the toenail fungus grew out for 6 months. This may not be your problem however. Taking anti fungal supplements like Pau D'Arco can help as well as probiotics. You may need to undertake the strict candida diet if it doesn't go away.

      Candida:

      http://www.nail-fungus-toenail.com/html/article-Symptoms%20of%20Candida.html

      Candida diet:

      http://www.thecandidadiet.com/

  33. QUESTION:
    What type of stuff should I put in a foot spa to help with nail fungus?

    • ANSWER:
      Hi!
      Infection with nail fungus occurs more in toenails than in fingernails because toenails are often confined in a dark, warm, moist environment inside your shoes — where fungi can thrive. Another reason may be the diminished blood circulation to the toes as compared with the fingers, which makes it harder for your body's immune system to detect and eliminate the infection.

      There is a product can be used in foot spa immersions recomended by Mayo Clinic Staff: www.fungusrealcure.com

  34. QUESTION:
    What's a good home remedy for toenail fungus?

    • ANSWER:
      Hi
      probably the most widely used and best known home remedy is the vinegar soak method (or apple cider vinegar.)You may read various stories from other suffers how this treatment was not as successsful as they first imagined

      The reason for this is this method is probably not the quickest - most suffers seem to stop when they seem to have conquered the condition, only for it to come back some weeks later.

      What you have to remember is whilst using this treatment you have to do two things - one is a change of habit, if you soak your feet for 20 minutes then put on a hot swaety sock, you are no better off. Similarly you have resign yourself to the fact that the treatment will last a minimum of six months and so even after three when the infection has appeared to have gone, continue with your routine.
      The second thing to do is to change your diet - you must change your inside to present a better outside , read this statement over again becuase it is true. If you produce an excess of yeast and fungus then this is the true root of the problem

  35. QUESTION:
    I have dark spots on my big toes for more than a year. I went to a Dermatologist, and she gave me UREA LOTION.?
    Also she told me not to wear socks. I tried that but I still have the dark spots. What do you thing the reason for that?

    • ANSWER:
      Are the spots underneath your toenails? If they are, it's probably fungus. I don't know what the hell not wearing socks has to do with anything.

      If it's fungus, you need to see a podiatrist and have him prescribe the topical ointment and Lamisil pills to get rid of the fungus.

  36. QUESTION:
    Is something wrong with my sister's smallest toenail?
    Ok, its really strange looking, since its brownish and its the second biggest nail, despite being the smallest. (you know what I mean). Anyways, she says it does not hurt when she walks, and the pain is very minor, almost unnoticible. She is only 11, and I'm really worried. Could it be some infectious disease or infection? Come to think of it, she was wearing tight shoes about last week. Could that be reason why? Also, it has things in it looking like cracks, and it looks thick.

    What could be wrong with it?

    • ANSWER:
      It looks like she has a toe fungus. I used to have fungus on many of my toes, now it's down to one, but they had very little negative impact on my life. They hurt very rarely. (A few seconds a couple times a day at most, most days no pain at all) Make sure to keep it trimmed, and be aware that having a toe fungus can make ingrown toenails more likely. I don't know a whole lot about toe fungus, and I'm sure someone else will have a more detailed and helpful answer, but since no one else has answered I'd like to help anyway.

  37. QUESTION:
    The area around my fingernails/cuticles have bled all day. Any reasons why that would happen?
    Earlier today, the area around my fingernails and below my fingernail bled for hours without stopping. I am not dehydrated, and my skin isn't dry...so why would this happen?
    My skin isn't dry, really, because I use eczema medication on it twice a day, and despite that, my fingers just started bleeding today

    • ANSWER:
      Take a good look at your fingernails and you may notice subtle variations in the texture or color -- a touch of white here, a rosy tinge there, perhaps some rippling or bumps in the surface. These imperfections may not look like much to you, but it’s more important than you might think to maintain healthy fingernails. That’s because to the trained eye, nails can provide valuable clues about your overall health. And noticing and following up on those clues is the best way to maintain healthy fingernails.
      Tips for Strong, Healthy Fingernails
      To maintain healthy fingernails, avoid infections, and improve nail appearance, try the following tips:

      Keep your nails clean and dry.
      Avoid nail-biting or picking.
      Apply moisturizer to your nails and cuticles every day. Creams with urea, phospholipids, or lactic acid can help prevent cracking.
      File your nails in one direction and round the tip slightly, rather than filing to a point.
      Don't remove the cuticles or clean too deeply under your nails, which can lead to infection.
      Don't dig out ingrown toenails. See a dermatologist if they become bothersome.
      Avoid nail polish removers that contain acetone or formaldehyde.
      Bring your own instruments if you get frequent manicures.
      If you have artificial nails, check regularly for green discoloration (a sign of bacterial infection).
      Eat a balanced diet and take vitamins containing biotin.
      Finally, to maintain your healthy fingernails over time, ask your doctor to take a look at them during your next checkup.

      "Just like the eyes are the window to the soul, so are the nails," says Tamara Lior, MD, a dermatologist with Cleveland Clinic Florida. Lior says she once convinced a patient to have his lungs checked after noticing a bluish tint to his nails, a sign that he wasn't getting enough oxygen. Sure enough, he had fluid in his lungs.

      Warning signs for many other conditions, from hepatitis to heart disease, may also appear when previously healthy fingernails undergo changes, according to Joshua Fox, MD, director of Advanced Dermatology and spokesman for the American Academy of Dermatology. "Changes in the nails can be a sign of a local disease like a fungus infection or a sign of a systemic disease like lupus or anemia," Fox tells WebMD.

      He says he sometimes tries to guess if a person has anemia by looking at his or her nails. He explains that pale, whitish nail beds may indicate a low red blood cell count consistent with anemia.

      An iron deficiency can cause the nail bed to be thin and concave and have raised ridges.

      While most of Fox's patients don't come in to report nail problems, he routinely checks patients to make sure they have healthy fingernails. "The nails offer many little clues to what's going on inside you. Lupus patients get quirky, angular blood vessels in their nail folds. Psoriasis starts in the nails up to 10% of the time" and causes splitting and pitting of the nail bed.

      Heart disease can turn the nail beds red. Obsessive-compulsive disorder can show up in the nails through persistent nail-biting or picking, Fox says.

      Even common disorders like thyroid disease can cause abnormalities in the nail beds, producing dry, brittle nails that crack and split easily.

      He lists the following 10 examples of nail changes that could indicate a serious medical condition.
      A Guide to Healthy Fingernails:
      10 Possible Signs of Serious Conditions

      Nail Appearance
      Associated Condition

      White nails
      Liver diseases such as hepatitis

      Yellowish, thickened, slow-growing nails
      Lung diseases such as emphysema

      Yellowish nails with a slight blush at the base
      Diabetes

      Half-white, half-pink nails
      Kidney disease

      Red nail beds
      Heart disease

      Pale or white nail beds
      Anemia

      Pitting or rippling of the nail surface
      Psoriasis or inflammatory arthritis

      "Clubbing," a painless increase in tissue around the ends of the fingers, or inversion of the nail
      Lung diseases

      Irregular red lines at the base of the nail fold
      Lupus or connective tissue disease

      Dark lines beneath the nail
      Melanoma

      'Rarely the First Clue'
      But can a doctor truly detect undiagnosed heart disease or kidney problems by looking at your nails? American College of Physicians spokesman Christine Laine, MD, MPH, says it's not likely. She doesn't dispute the connection between nails and disease, but she cautions, "Nail changes are rarely the first clue of serious illness. In most instances, patients will manifest other signs or symptoms of disease before nail changes become evident. For example, it would be unusual that nail clubbing was the first thing a patient with emphysema noticed. Breathing difficulty probably would have been present already."

      In addition, Laine, who is senior deputy editor of the Annals of Internal Medicine, notes that certain illnesses may cause nail changes in some patients but not in others. "For example, not all people with liver disease develop white nails," Laine tells WebMD. The reverse is true as well -- not everyone with white nails has liver disease. "In the absence of other signs or symptoms of disease, I would be reluctant to launch a complex, expensive work-up for systemic disease solely because of nail findings."

      Fox agrees there is no need to run to the nearest cardiologist if your nail beds turn red. "It could very well be from nail polish," he says. Before assuming the worst, it's important to look at more common explanations, such as bruises, bleeding beneath the nail, and fungal infections. However, it’s worthwhile to be vigilant about maintaining healthy fingernails so that you’ll be alert to any potential problem.

      When to See a Dermatologist
      When healthy fingernails begin to change color or texture, one of the most common underlying causes is fingernail fungus, which can cause the nails to crack, peel, and change color and texture. These infections often prove difficult to treat and may require professional help, including prescription antifungal medications. Fox says it's best to see a dermatologist if symptoms persist, especially if the nails start to dislodge from the base or you experience pain and swelling.

      Be alert to changes in texture, shape, or color that aren't due to a bruise or fungal infection, including irregular growth, pitting or holes in the nails, dark brown streaks beneath the nail and cuticle, or long-standing warts on the nail bed. Any such color change to previously healthy fingernails is cause for concern. According to Lior, such changes can indicate skin cancer. "Warts around the nails have a tendency to develop into squamous cell cancer," she tells WebMD. "If patients see a dark discoloration involving the cuticle, then we worry about melanoma," the deadliest form of skin cancer.

      Fox advises reporting these types of changes to a specialist as soon as possible. "Dermatologists are well-trained in deciphering between innocuous and serious nail conditions, as well as determining when a change requires further testing."

  38. QUESTION:
    Turtles. Does anyone of good tips on taking care of a box turtle?
    My friend is giving me her box turtle. My parents gave me all kinds of info on them but some of it isn't really that specific. Like hOw many times a week does it get fed? Should i bring it with me over the summer on vacation from ILL to WIS, or will it be ok if i just leave food out for it for the week? PLZ help!!

    • ANSWER:
      Housing:

      Box turtles tend to do well either outdoors, or in a large indoor enclosure. Many people do keep them in tiny aquariums, but it is a rather sad existence, in my opinion. One type of indoor container that actually works quite well is a large Rubbermaid tub. Rubbermaid tubs and specially built wooden boxes have an advantage over glass aquariums because they have opaque sides. Some box turtles will obsessively try to get through the glass to get to the larger area that they can see on the other side. Others become frightened by any activity in the room and will not relax until the sides are covered.

      If you live within the natural range of any of the American box turtles, you should seriously consider an outdoor setup with sun, shade, a variety of weeds, and a small pond of water that is deep enough for swimming. Turtles are happier and healthier under these conditions. Some type of protection is required to prevent raccoons, dogs, or other predators from entering the enclosure.

      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Substrate:

      One substrate that works well is a combination of potting soil, sand, leaf mulch and sphagnum moss. When misted every day, it holds humidity well. A product called "Bed-a-Beast" is recommended by many people for the same reason.

      Burrowing into the substrate and/or hiding under a hollow log or "cave" of some sort makes box turtles feel secure. Just a small cardboard box will work fine, but a variety of logs and caves are sold at many pet stores. You should also make the substrate deep enough for the turtle to burrow completely under.

      Flat rocks in one area will help keep the turtle's toenails in good shape.

      All box turtles need high humidity. Dry air can cause eye irritation and even respiratory illness. It can literally kill a box turtle. Even the so-called desert box turtles (Terrapene ornata luteola) do their best to avoid dry air. They burrow into moist soil and come out at dawn and dusk when dew moistens everything at ground level, and become highly active in rain. Thoroughly mist the terrarium every day. Your turtle is likely to be most eager to eat right after being misted. Keeping potted plants in the terrarium will offer a comforting natural look, and also help maintain high humidity.

      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Water:

      Box turtles enjoy wading and soaking in water, so provide some sort of pool. They will often defecate in their water container, and that helps keep the enclosure clean, if the water is replaced daily. Box turtles kept indoors should be placed in water to soak every day. Box turtles may be clumsy swimmers, but many of them do seem to enjoy it if a deeper pond is available in an outdoor enclosure. Some box turtles will swim in an outdoor pond for over an hour almost every warm day. Others just wade and soak in the shallow end. Make sure there is an easy exit so a swimming box turtle does not become exhaused. Also, cold water can disable a turtle that falls in or enters to swim. A warm water pond with an easy exit will be appreciated by many American box turtles and poses no significant danger of drowning.

      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Feeding:

      American Box turtles are omnivores and will enjoy fruits, fungi, veggies, greens, mollusks, worms and insects. From research with wild turtles, we know they eat plants for almost half the diet and animal foods for a little bit over half the diet. They are opportunistic feeders, willing to eat almost anything edible that they find. So focus on using a wide variety of foods. Feed the turtle on a flat rock rather than from dishes of any kind. This more natural approach will prevent the beak and toenails from becoming overgrown. Provide a high calcium source all the time--e.g. cuttlebone, boiled eggshells, plaster block--so that the turtle can munch when it feels the need for more calcium.

      If your turtle is reluctant to eat, try soaking and misting before feeding. Make sure the turtle is warm enough, and well lighted. Reluctant feeders can often be enticed with live food such as an earthworm or slug, or colorful foods such as strawberries or cantaloupe. Stinky foods, such as canned cat food, can be useful in getting a reluctant turtle eating. (However, cat food is not a good food for frequent use.) Sick turtles will usually not eat well, so if the turtle refuses to eat for more than two weeks, seek veterinary care.

      As an example of a good, healthy meal for a box turtle, try a salad of chopped grapes, dandelion, and grated carrot, and add a delightful topping of earthworm. This should convince your turtle that you are a good provider. A couple days later, try a mushroom and a strawberry on a turnip leaf, with a few sowbugs on top, lightly garnished with calcium powder. Mmm, mmm, good! Do not use the same food for two feedings i

  39. QUESTION:
    Is it normal for a diabetic to get yellow toe nails?

    • ANSWER:
      Brittle nails can be a sign of aging. They are characterized by vertical splitting or a separation of the nail plate layers. Yellow nails can result from a respiratory condition or from swelling of the hands. Yellow nail syndrome makes nails thicken and grow slowly, creating brittle yellow nails. Other reasons for yellow, dry nails are lung disease or diabetes. Fungal infections of the nail will create brittle, yellow nails. As the fungus feeds on the nail protein, debris accumulates under the nail bed, discoloring the nail and making it brittle.

      Vitamin and nutrition deficiencies can cause nails to become yellow and brittle. Not enough nutrients can slow nail growth, which can lead to discoloring. Just as your organs require nutrients, so do your hair, nails and skin. Diseases that rob your body of essential nutrients, such as inflammatory bowel diseases, can cause your nails to become dry and turn yellow. The cause of yellow nail syndrome is unknown but is thought to be from immunodeficiency syndromes, internal malignancies, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, pleural effusions or lymphatic abnormality.

      See a good podiatrist that can treat this problem and also if you are a diabetic you want the podiatrist to treat the ongoing care of your toenails.

      Hope this helps.

  40. QUESTION:
    why is my toenail black? and how do i get rid of it?
    under my big toenail it is really black with a fungus what is a good way to fix this prob. for cheap.. or home REM.

    • ANSWER:
      I had this problem before. The reason why your toenail is black is because of a broken or burst blood vessel under your toenail. The blood has just dried, so it's most likely a dark-purple or black color.

      You may have popped a blood vessel from putting too much pressure on your feet. If you wear too-tight shoes, or wore shoes with loose laces, or have problems with your dance or running shoes, then it's all a possibility. If your toe starts giving you pain, then consult a doctor.

      When I had this problem, there wasn't much I could do. I just wore socks more often, and had to cut my toenails when they started getting long. The problem will go away, but it might just take a while, especially if the bruise is big.

      PS: Do not listen to Country Boy. He's wrong, and if you do that, you can have the severe possibility of damaging nerves or veins under your toenail.

  41. QUESTION:
    Is there any future health problems if nail fungus goes untreated?

    • ANSWER:
      Untreated nails can affect your quality of life. When you have nail fungus, the nail will become increasingly thickened and discolored. An untreated toenail infected with nail fungus can worsen to the point that it is painful to walk. If the infection worsens, it can cause foot ulcers. This is especially dangerous for individuals with diabetes.

      Without treatment, nail fungus will continue to infect your nail. Although it may take a while, untreated nail fungus usually gets worse. It may spread to other nails and sometimes the surrounding skin. Although it is not common, nail fungus also can spread to others in your family who share your bathroom and other living spaces.

      Nail Fungus (also called tinea unguium or onychomychosis) affects the fingernails and toenails of an estimated 30-35 million Americans. This disease is commonly misunderstood and left untreated for various reasons. The fungi that cause toenail fungus are related to those that cause ringworm, athelete's foot, and other common fungal infections. Toenail fungus, in particular, is notoriously difficult to treat. These fungi can also be confused with other conditions, such as psoriasis of the nails, nail ridges, and sometimes bacterial infections.

      Also known as Onychomycosis, fungal nail infections are caused by an organism that digests the keratin found in our fingernails and toenails. Our nails are naturally built to be strong barriers, and resistant to fungi and other infections. The strength of this barrier also makes nail fungus very difficult to eradicate once it is present.

  42. QUESTION:
    want to buy a chameleon?
    I think i spelt it right, anyway i'm thinking of buying my husband a chameleon how much can i expect to pay for one, what equipment do i need and what do i need to look out for or beware of! thanx in advance

    • ANSWER:
      The cage

      Before bringing your Jackson's home you'll need to already have their new environment ready to go. It helps to have the set-up "tested out" to be sure the temperatures and humidity levels will be and remain consistent.

      The enclosure should be large enough to conduct natural behaviors, like basking, hunting, and feeding. With Jackson's being a montane species the cage should be vertical, and not horizontal. Many different perching surfaces for regulation of body temperature are also important. Good ventilation - without it air can become stagnant and thus create an opportunity for bacteria and fungus which can lead to an Upper Respiratory Infection, among other things. At least 2 sides, preferably more, of the enclosure should be screened, not including the top of the cage. Many different people have many different opinions on what kind of screen should be used. It has been suggested that standard aluminum & fiberglass screen should be avoided. This kind of screen can result in foot injuries like a toenail becoming caught and ripped out. Crickets can also chew through the fiberglass screen. I have witnessed both firsthand.

      Glass tanks should be avoided altogether. First of all they do not permit the proper air circulation needed that screen allows, and chameleons don' quite understand glass. An all screen cage will provide a visual barrier, while with glass chameleons will try to walk through it. This, and the chance that they may see their reflection in the glass will only cause unnecessary stress.

      Cage size recommendations vary for single adult Jackson's anywhere from 18" x 18" x 36", 24" x 24" x 36" and up (for all three subspecies), but as a general rule - the bigger the better. As for babies, enclosures should be small enough for the owner to be able to keep a close watch on their health and activities. For more on the care of neonates see Breeding/Reproduction.

      For a list of online cage retailers, see Sources
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      Cage furniture

      Jackson's are highly adapted to their arboreal lifestyle and require climbing and basking branches. These should be of various sizes in diameter to exercise their toe muscles, but for the most part be approximate to the size of their grip. Bio-Vine has three different sizes that work very well. Craft stores sell things like grapevine wreaths that can be torn apart for smaller (baby) chameleons, as well are larger "twigs". Try not to overcrowd the cage but make a good system of "highways" for them to travel. If you collect twigs and branches from outside you should sterilize them first. For larges branches you can sterilize them in the bathtub. Use 1 part bleach to 10 parts water and soak for up to 1 hour. Rinse thoroughly and dry in direct sulight (if possible). Smaller branches or twigs can be "cooked" in an oven (if they fit, of course) at 200° for an hour, but keep a close eye on them. The branches and twigs can be tied together with cable ties (available at most hardware stores), or a very small gauge plastic coated wire.
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      Substrate

      Many people do not recommend any kind of substrate (the material that goes on the bottom of the cage), other than newspaper or a quality topsoil. It's my personal opinion against both of these for use as a substrate (for indoor use) for the following reasons: newspaper - if you use an automatic misting system, newspaper does not provide proper absorption of the excess water, and newspaper ink can be toxic. In place of this I use paper towels (without print) - A LOT of paper towels - and this needs to be changed frequently. As for the use of topsoil, once again, with a misting system the excess water can lead to bug infestation along with it being more difficult to keep the cage clean. I have also used Spanish moss and Sphagnum moss without any ill effects but only in the Fall/Winter/Spring when natural humidity levels are at their lowest. But be aware, oversaturation of the moss can and will promote bug infestation. Avoid ANY kind of wood chip or sand as a substrate. If your chameleon happens ingest this along with a cricket, worm, etc., this type of substrate can become impacted in their digestive system and kill them. Cage carpet also promotes bug infestation and bacteria, and MUST be constantly cleaned.
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      Plants

      There are many great plants you can use for the decor, as well as for the well being of your chameleon. In general you'll want to use real full-leafed plants which aerate the cage and can decrease the chances for an Upper Respiratory Infection (see Troubles/Illness), as well as provide a means for drinking water droplets, and shelter or refuge. Pothos are very common, and great not only because their vines can grow to great lengths (I have some that are 9 feet long!), but because they are said to have the ability to remove some contaminates from the air. However it is also reported that they are mildly toxic but many chameleon owners have been witness to their chameleons eating this with no side effects. Ficus trees - to start this off, many people feel these are not a good choice due to a white, milky sap that is said to cause eye infections. It is my experience that this sap is only evident when you trim/cut back branches. Whenever I have to do this the chameleons are removed and replaced when this sap has dried. I believe it would also take the chameleon to have to rub their eyes directly on that fresh trimming spot. At some point you may notice brown bumps on the stems or leaves. These are a scale insect that feeds by sucking the nutrients out of the plant. Use an insecticidal soap and rinse thoroughly - also try to avoid soil saturation. If not a bad infestation removing them by hand could eliminate them. Hibiscus plants are colorful and sturdy, but I have found that this is a "seasonal" plant and not always available. Another great plant many people use is the Sheflerra, sometimes labeled as the umbrella tree.

      Any plant you use should be cleaned before using, especially those purchased from a florist or hardware store. These places may use pesticides that can be harmful to your chameleon. Cleaning them can be accomplished by placing the plant(s) in your shower and using a mild soap/water mixture to clean off the leaves. Let them sit under the shower spray until clean (use your best judgment). You may also want to cover the soil with plastic to avoid flooding the plant and making a big mess when you take the plant(s) out of the shower stall.

      Clicking on the picture below will take you to an alphabetical list of plants which, in whole or their parts, are known to range from mildly intoxicating to extremely toxic to herbivorous reptiles. To the best of my knowledge I have not heard of or been witness to any of my Jackson's eating any plant matter but it's better to be safe than sorry. And if you have other chameleons that do eat plants as part of their diet this may help.
      TOXIC PLANTS

      If you're looking for extensive and in-depth lists concerning plants and toxicity here are a few more:

      Melissa Kaplan's site on edible and harmful plants

      Poisonous Plant Database (Plant List)
      U.S. Food & Drug Administration
      Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition
      Office of Plant and Dairy Foods and Beverages

      Canadian Poisonous Plants Information System
      Links to various sites concerning plant toxicity.
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      Cage cleanliness

      Cleanliness is yet another important factor in successful chameleon husbandry. General cleaning helps in prevention of both disease and parasites, and should be done weekly. If you do use a substrate, like moss, it should be changed frequently. Any feces on leaves or the cage floor should be removed as soon as possible. Cleaning of vines, sticks or other perches is also necessary. If you use a "catch basin" to catch falling water from a dripper or misting system they should also be cleaned either daily or weekly depending on size. For quick cleaning of the catch basins I use Windex AntiBacterial followed by a thorough rinsing. For standard cleaning go with the watch/bleach combo mentioned earlier. WARNING: be sure all cleaning agents you use have been washed away - this means their smell too. These can be absorbed through their skin and cause sickness or death, or both.

      A good thing is that chameleons are not particularly messy, although my adult male Dwarf Jackson's thinks it is necessary to climb into a plant pot and kick dirt onto the cage bottom immediately after being cleaned. This may be due to his disliking of a white cage floor, since I didn't notice him doing this when moss was used as a substrate (I no longer use moss or any kind of substrate).
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      Heat (or lack of)

      It's a misconception that all reptiles are heat lovers. Most chameleons cannot tolerate excessive heat and will die if they are subjected to it. Jackson's are no exception. Keep reading for desired temperatures and lighting.
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      Temperatures

      The ideal ambient temperature for a Jackson's is 77° F, not to exceed 80° F during the day with a basking spot of 85° to 90° F. While 90° F might seem high for a basking temp to some, others have reported that some of their Jackson's do quite well with this basking temperature. The best thing you can do is to keep a close on your Jackson's and watch for signs of overheating (gaping, blanched color, etc.). A 10° F temperature drop at night is recommended. They can withstand a cooler nighttime drop into the 50s as long as they can warm up into the 70s again in the daytime, but that would be for continuous outdoor keeping. Some people who house their Jackson's outside have reported that their chameleons can even withstand times of light snowing. (For temperatures for babies, see Breeding/Reproduction.)

      Yet another important aspect of temperature is to have a temperature gradient. This means if it is a certain temperature on the top of the cage, the temperature should be cooler as you go downward. This is yet another way for a chameleon to regulate their body temperature.

      You should NOT use heat rocks, heat pads, or any other type of heating element other than an incandescent light bulb.

      The best and most accurate way to measure the temperature inside your chameleons cage is with a digital temperature gague. There are other dial-type temperature gagues that are for sale at just about every pet store, but I personally don't feel they give you an accurate reading. Some have a black face which would show that it's hotter than it really is (I've tested this) and you can calibrate them by turing the cover, which is not a good thing. I once bought a bunch of these, all the same kind, and every one showed a different temperature at the same time. There are a few differnt kinds of digital temperature gagues, some that show just the temp, some that show the temp and humidity, and some that show the temp, an "outside" temp, and humidity. Both of these that are pictured have a min/max feature so you can see what the highest AND lowest temps and humidity levels were throughout the day. The one that displays an "outside" temp uses an external probe that is great for use under a basking spot. This is probably the easiest way to get an accurate reading under a basking spot. This is because the actual thermometers are encased inside the housing of the unit so it will entrap the heat thus giving a higher reading. The probe in not encased in such and will give you a more accurate reading (I also tested this). The best place that I'm aware of to purchase these digital thermometers/hygrometers (humidity) is Radio Shack.
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      Incandescent light

      You do not need a heat bulb for any Jackson's chameleon, a 40- to 60-watt light bulb will do perfectly. These will provide (approximately) the 85° F basking spot needed, given the background temp is within range (77° F). This light should be placed where your chameleon cannot touch it, preferably on top of the cage. A nighttime light is not required.
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      UV lighting

      To start off, there is a new kind of lighting on the market today that claims to be heat and UVB/UVA in one bulb. To date these have not been proven to be able to actually provide the necessary amounts of UV rays, although initial reports from those that have used them sound promising. I have tested these out and have come to find that with the lowest available wattage bulb (100-watt flood), used in conjuction with the light extender that is sold by the same company that makes these bulbs, it is still too hot for a Jackson's - this is just my opionion. While these do not put out as much heat as one would think, I recorded temps of 95° F and slightly above, too hot for Jackson's as well as many other chameleon species. I have spoken to someone at this company and was told that a 60-watt bulb will be coming out in Sept/Oct of 2001. Until then...

      All chameleons need exposure to natural sunlight, and your chameleons will do great if you provide this for them. Exposure to UVB is critical for the formation of the chemical which ultimately is transformed by the animal's body into vitamin D 3. In turn, D 3 is responsible for the proper uptake and metabolization of calcium in the body. Going without this can lead to Metabolic Bone Disease (MBD) from a calcium deficiency. This can be disfiguring to your chameleon and may eventually lead to death. Moderate exposure to UVA can be beneficial as it promotes basking and feeding, and increases activity levels. While excessive exposure can be dangerous, failure to provide this can alter a reptile's perception of how it actually sees things, thus causing stress.

      In researching UV lighting you may come across the abbreviation CRI, which stands for Color Rendering Index, and refers to the ability of light to produce the "true" colors of an object as they would appear in natural light. You may have noticed (or will) that your UV producing tubes are not very bright (low CRI). Those that do produce UV and are bright will not produce as much (UV). This is not because of the makers of these lights, this is the result of the technology itself.

      The glass used in the windows of your home filter these rays, as does plastic or plexi-glass, so any exposure through these doesn't really help. And since exposure to natural sunlight is not always possible, you'll need to provide full-spectrum fluorescent lighting. However, there is a downside - these bulbs need to be as close to the top of the cage as possible since the maximum output of these can only reach (up to) 12 inches; also the UV levels will diminish over time so they need to be replaced about every 6 months.
      UVA/UVB lights

      The most recommended bulb is the ZOOMed REPTISUN 5.0 UVB bulb. These can be obtained from many local, commercial, or on-line pet stores, although they can be quite expensive, ranging anywhere from to . However, every now and then there is a way around the cost. Follow the link for Flamingo World, an on-line coupon page; look for "Pet Store" in the menu "Stores and Deals by category" and see what coupons are available. You'll need to browse those particular stores to see if they offer these lights. I have purchased these bulbs for as low as each from coupons found on this page! NOTE: Don't be fooled though - the same bulb is also marketed to iguana keepers called the Iguana Light 5.0, and some stores will have different prices for each light. I called ZOOMed and they confirmed that these two lights are in fact the same thing. So you should feed safe in choosing which ever light is cheaper.
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      Humidity

      The ideal relative humidity range for Jackson's is 50 to 75%, the latter being better as to recreate their natural environment. In nature the humidity levels are at their highest during the night and can drop to only 50% during the day. This can be accomplished by use of an ultrasonic humidifier, a cool mist humidifier (NOT a warm mist humidifier), misting of the cage plants with a water (spray) bottle or an automatic misting system. Using moss as a substrate might also help in keeping humidity levels up, but be aware of the possible impaction of your chameleon's intestinal tract, and even bug infestation moss can cause. Believe it or not, chameleons receive much of their body fluids through breathing in the humid, moisture-laden air. This keeps them hydrated during times of little rainfall in nature. During a dry season chameleons solely subsist on the night and early morning humid air. This in no way means you should skimp on providing water through spraying or a dripper.

      Like the temperature gague, the best way to get an accurate reading is with a digital hygrometer (see Temperatures). With these you'll see the relative humidity at it's lowest and highest throughout the day.
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      Drippers/misting/showers

      Like all chameleons Jackson's have substantial water requirements, and will not drink standing water, such as a dish with water sitting in it. They are dew drinkers so they need simulated rain or dew as in nature. This is best accomplished with a dripper (a must have for chameleons over 2-3 months old), and a hand held water sprayer or pump either large or small, or an automatic misting system. Whatever you choose a dripper AND some sort of misting by either hand held or misting system should be used 3-5 times a day. Drippers can be purchased at many pet stores or even home made. There are a few kinds of drippers available, some that I personally think are a pain and need to be modified. And then there are those that work great right from the start.
      The dripper pictured below is one that I feel is a pain, and on top of that doesn't hold much water at all, leading you to have to refill it throughout the day. I modified this one with a hot glue gun due to the fact that these tend to develope leaks. Hot glue guns can be bought from craft stores or hardware stores for as little as . First, the suction cup piece should be removed and the suction piece should be cut off (not necessary, but you don't need it because hopefully you will not have your chameleon housed in a tank!). Replace the remaining "stump" and with the glue gun seal it off so the water cannot seep out. Next remove the piece with the flow valve, but leave the connector piece intact. Again, glue around the outside to seal it off, but be sure not to put too much glue around this piece so the part with the valve can be put back on. When glue has dried replace valve control and it's ready to use. You can also use aquarium grade silicone but I have found that using this doesn't provide as strong of a seal as the glue, and can take over 24 hours to dry.
      Click pictures below for larger images.
      back plug front spout

      The drippers pictured below are those that I feel are great to use. The first one is bigger than those pictured above, holding (approx.) 28 oz. of water, just under 1 quart. The second one holds 1 gallon. If you have a a cage with drainage or catch basin that will hold this much water I would have to recommend the 1 gallon dripper. The dripper hoses can be cut to a different length if necessary.
      Click pictures below for larger images.
      28 oz. dripper 1 gallon dripper

      You can even make a dripper yourself with help from the The Chameleon Journals. Or, for the cheapest route, poke a hole in the bottom of a plastic cup and fill with warm water. Make sure not to make the hole too big as the water will just run out rather than drip. It is recommended now and again to place ice cubes in the cup, or even on top of the cage, but warm water has proven to many people to entice chameleons to drink. Let's face it, the water they drink in the wild is nowhere near ice cold. Regardless of what type of dripper you use make sure to clean it on a regular basis.

      You'll also need something to catch this falling water. A few things that have worked for me was to cut a hole in the lid of an adequately sized Tupperware container, and glue a piece of screen over the hole you cut. Or forget the lid and just secure the screen around the catch basin with a rubber band. Note: use fiberglass screen as it is much easier to work with. The screen is to prevent crickets and other food items from jumping/falling in and drowning.

      One more thing - if you aren't satisfied with just the water dripping from the top of the cage, here's one more thing I have done to modify this. With a piece of fishing line I've tied a nylon string (about 1/4", from Home Depot) that goes from the top of the cage where the dripper hose meets the screen top and the string hovers about an inch above a leaf or branch that the water drips onto. It's important that this is placed over an easily accessible area, perhaps above a common path. This has worked so well, that my Jackson's will actually manipulate the string to get the water to run over their bodies! Of course the string needs to be replaced regularly as to prevent bacteria. See pics below.

      Automatic misting systems are a bit more expensive, but can be purchased from a few different on-line places. I bought mine from Ecologic Technologies. Follow the link and read about their system. For a few more options with misting systems, see Sources

      Another thing people recommend, myself included, is to give your chameleon a shower once or twice a week. There are a few ways to do this. The simplest way is to place a sturdy plant of some sort inside the shower/tub and bounce the spray off the shower wall onto the plant. Be sure that the water is not too hot and that it is not aimed directly at the plant and chameleon. But depending on your shower set up or even the shower head this may not be possible so here is another way. This may look crude, but it works well for me. For starters you may need extra light (use at your own risk) depending on how much light is actually over your shower stall already, a plant or ficus tree (real or fake), a 2 gallon pump sprayer, and some packing tape. The light can be clamped onto the shower curtain rod/door rail (again, depending on your shower set up) and place the plant/tree in the tub. NOTE: If you do use light excersize extreme caution as the combonation of water and electricity can be deadly! I hold no responsibity for any mishaps or accidents. Fill the water pump (available at Home Depot for around ) with hot water (the mist will come out warm) and place it next to the tub. Aim the nozzle so that it sprays over top of the plant/tree and tape the handle to the wall so that it remains stationary. This pump when full will last about 20 to 25 minutes and will need to be pumped up to capacity 2 or 3 times during this time. Hopefully the pictures that follow will help.

      The subject of using a fountain within a cage gets brought up from time to time on many forums. Most people avoid using fountains because they need to be cleaned daily, or at least every other day since most fountains are designed to simply recycle unfiltered water. Crickets can get into them and die, feces can be dropped into them causing additional bacteria, etc. Unless you're willing to disinfect a fountain daily, it is best to stay away from them.

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      Insect variety

      Simply put, Jackson's are insectivorous, meaning they feed on insects and other invertebrates. The food needs to be of appropriate size, or as I was once told, no bigger than their own head (which would kind of be stating the obvious). Although crickets, which can be bought or raised yourself, will make up the bulk of their diet, Jackson's should be offered as much variety as possible. This will help them physically (due to different nutrients in different insects) as well as psychologically (to prevent them from becoming bored with the same old thing). The following insects are safe for chameleon consumption:
      crickets
      wax worms
      silk worms
      regular & giant mealworms
      superworms
      aphids
      spiders
      grasshoppers (green ones)
      pill bugs/wood lice
      preying mantids
      walking sticks
      flies (house and fruit)
      earthworms
      common house moths
      white butterflies
      cockroaches
      slugs/snails (not the snails you find in the water)

      A select few of these are available at many different local (depending on where you live) and online stores. You can also field collect insects from areas that you are sure are not chemically treated. But remember, not all chameleons will eat all of the bugs listed.

      Note: Land snails (and NOT water snails which have been associated with trematode infestations in chameleons) can also be used as a food source as many chameleons eat snails in the wild. Their shells are mostly digestible calcium and are pretty thin and brittle as long as they are small enough to feed to your chameleon. They can be found in moist places such as near a stream or under masses of decaying leaves and wood. You can buy land snails through http://www.berkshirebio.com/.

      Some chams like slugs, but the slime and wetness doesn't always stick to the tongue, assuming you can get the slug to move enough for your chameleon to notice it.

      Since crickets are the staple diet of most chameleons, I'd like to share my favorite online cricket (they also sell other feeder insects) retailer. I have ordered from many different places with varied results, but none can match the quality of crickets AND service that I receive from Reptilefood.com. Click the icon below to go to their site.

      There are however bugs that should not be fed to your chameleon, and here is a list of only what I'm aware of to be dangerous and possibly toxic:
      lightning bugs (fireflies)
      lady bugs
      boxelder bugs
      ants
      monarch butterflies and caterpillars
      grasshoppers with bright red or orange coloration
      centipedes

      In general, anything that stings or has bright colors should be avoided. One more thing to avoid are those "fuzz bugs" that are sometimes in your shipment of crickets (for anyone who mail orders crickets). Apparently, when under a microscope the ends of those hairs on these pests are shaped like fish hooks and could cause damage to the digestive system of your chameleon.

      Crickets, mealworms, and superworms can be obtained from almost any pet store, wax worms (all my Jackson's go CRAZY over these!) are also available at some pet stores. You may have luck at a bait store, but I tend to stay away from these. Considering these are raised for bait and not as feeder items, you'll never know what they were raised on or the conditions they were raised in. Silk worms are available by mail order from Mulberry Farms and are fairly easy to raise. Fruit flies can be bought at a few local pet shops (at least in my area), otherwise you may have better luck with some on-line retailers such as Ed's Fly Meat. I have had great results with their fly culture medium.
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      Gut-loading

      All your feeder insects should be gut-loaded, which is basically feeding the insects to increase their nutritional content. For some great feeder insect recipes, as well as some resources for purchasing other types of insects, once again The Chameleon Journals pulls through. As for something as general as crickets, you can feed them collard greens, carrots, potatoes, apples, oranges, bee pollen, spinach, broccoli, all at different intervals.

      For more options in gut-loading, buying, or rearing insects, see Sources
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      Vitamin/Mineral supplementation

      You will need to supplement your chameleon's diet by "dusting" them with a vitamin and mineral powder. There are a few different kinds out there for you to use. For calcium/mineral supplementation you can use Sticky Tongue Farms Miner-All (with vitamin D3 for chameleons housed indoors, without for those housed outside), or Rep-Cal. Like Miner-All, Rep-Cal also comes with or without vitamin D3 but some people recommend mixing both of the Rep-Cal (with and without D3) together as the Rep-Cal with vitamin D3 has excessive amounts of it. This calcium/mineral supplementation should be used just about every day for newborns, juveniles, and gravid females; 3 times a week for adults.

      As for vitamin supplementation you can use Herptivite, also from Rep-Cal. Some people recommend using this once per week, others say only once per month. If you gut-load your insects properly, once per month should be plenty. Overdoing the vitamins can be just as dangerous and not using any vitamins at all.

      But please note: There is no exact answer as to what is the right amount of vitamins/minerals chameleons should have and it would vary with species, age, whether or not a chemeleon is gravid, etc. Let it be said that the better you gut-load your feeder insects, the less you'll need to supplement.
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      Back to top
      Housing
      Housing chameleons together
      The Cage
      Cage "furniture"
      Substrate
      Plants
      Cage cleanliness
      Heating/Temperature/Lighting
      Heat (or lack of)
      Temperatures
      Incandescent lighting
      UVB/UVA lighting
      Humidity/Water
      Humidity levels
      Drippers/misting/showers
      Food/Supplementation
      Insect variety
      Gut-loading
      Vitamin/Mineral supplementation
      Back to Home

      Copyright 2000, Steven J. O'Meara

  43. QUESTION:
    Why are my finger nails turning black?
    my nails have turn white now turning black is something wrong with me.I'm 13 and weight 200 pounds could that be the reason. i don't eat a lots of fruit most junk food
    is it because i don't eat right or a enought blood not going ti my hand

    ps i not good a spelling things

    • ANSWER:
      Sounds like a fungal infection. Talk to your doctor!!

      *********************
      Black Fingernails

      If you have a black fingernail, you may be wondering whether it is caused by a fungal infection under the nail. This may well be the case, however, other things can cause a nail to turn black, so it's important to consider other possibilities and perhaps consult your doctor before jumping to conclusions.

      Fungal infection of fingernails and toenails is called onychomycosis. Only a few species of fungus are capable of invading human hair and nails - they often gain access through a break in the skin or under the nail at the tip of the finger or toe. Because they derive their nutrients from the protein found in human nails and dead skin cells, these fungi do not invade healthy tissue. Instead, they invade the matrix of the nail itself and grow there, causing a black fingernail or toenail.

      Onychomycosis is quite common: more than ten percent of the North American population will experience a fungal nail infection at some time in their lives: it is probably the most common cause of nail abnormalities in the general population, however, there are other causes. A blow to the affected nail is the most obvious alternative. When a nail or the root of a nail is struck so that blood vessels are broken and a bruise forms under the nail, a black area develops that takes a very long time to clear up. Depending on the severity of the bleeding, the whole nail or only part of the nail will be affected. Nails grow very slowly and bruises are similarly slow to disappear even after soreness subsides - a black nail that persists long after the initial injury is no cause for alarm. It will grow out in time.

      Nail injuries are, however, the route of entry for other organism that can either live in and under the nail without causing a problem or set up an infection in exposed tissue. Some species of bacteria are known to colonize spaces in nail beds without causing infection. Some of these bacteria produce color changes, though shades of green are more typical than black. The bacterial colonies can persist for long periods of time without causing noticeable inflammation. Various species of yeast can set up severe and progressive infections of the nail bed and tissues around the nail, however these infections usually do not cause a black fingernail, and are generally severe enough that the need for medical attention is obvious. Yeast infections are, in fact, another form of onychomycosis.

      If you have not suffered a nail injury and your black fingernail is slowly progressing and causing the nail to become thick, deformed, and crumbly, you may have true onychomycosis. Typically, infected nails are white, yellow, brown or black, and variations on these shades may be present. The infection often starts on a toenail and progresses to other toes and fingers, and is very resistant to treatment. If you suspect you have a fungal nail infection, make an appointment with your physician for a proper diagnosis.

  44. QUESTION:
    Ok... a little gross, but i need your advice?
    I have a weird toenail fungus (i think)

    Basically, i thought that my toe was just bruised at first, because it was darker, and now my toenail is whitish, but there's no black anymore. is it fungus or something? Does lamisil healing nail polish work? Could i still use it if it's expired? Should I paint my nails at all to disguise the off-color?

    Thanks!

    • ANSWER:
      1. Go see a doctor so he can diagnose you correctly-it may not be fungus, if you don't have the fungus why take medicine for it?

      2.NEVER USE EXPIRED DRUGS! Their is a reason for the expiration date, so just throw it away. Wait until your doctor definitively lets you know what is wrong.

      3. Don't paint your toe-nails, the doctor will need to see it and painting it will obviously hinder that.

      Good luck

  45. QUESTION:
    I have toenail fungus. Can I still join the air force?
    I know its a weird question. I just want to know if something like that would prevent me from enlisting.

    • ANSWER:
      If it isn't contagious, i don't see a reason why not.

  46. QUESTION:
    Does walking barefoot cause your feet to get wider?
    Curious... so would asians have wider feet in general compared to westerners? Wondering...
    it kind of makes sense doesn't it?
    fetish?! UH NO lol... I think you're projecting.. hmm.. ;-D
    Ok, well do fatter people have wider feet? If so then it kicks the genetics theory out the window hahaha
    Ok thanks for the wonderful imagery bigsis O_O;

    • ANSWER:
      I think it does. The reason I think this is because I'm a westerner living in a tropical country and as a result I walk around barefoot or in flip flops most of the time. When I go back home for a few weeks, sometimes it can feel uncomfortable wearing proper shoes because they feel too tight, so I do think you get 'Fred Flintstone' feet if you walk around with your feet unsupported by proper shoes.

      This also something my friends have noticed, so I know I'm not the only one

      As for Asian people having wider feet - I don't think so. Generally they have smaller feet anyway, so walking barefoot may still not make their feet wider than a Westerner's. You do see some horrible foot conditions here though such as really badly cracked heels, fungus on toenails and feet that look like they've never even caught a sniff of moisturiser!

  47. QUESTION:
    what side effects would i be having from mercury poisoning?

    • ANSWER:
      In an overall lifestyle sense, the fact that symptoms come and go leads to the victim having periods of weeks to years of being highly functional and productive, interspersed with periods of being nonproductive and having a hard time getting anything done. Life seems to progress in fits and starts. Great progress is made on projects which later get shelved for long periods. As the disease continues, the productive periods become shorter, fewer, and farther between.

      There are emotional changes in mercury poisoning. Depression slowly sets in. Victims feel fatigued and listless. They lack motivation - even for crucial tasks. They lose interest in their surroundings and in their own life. They do not enjoy life, or experience happiness or joy. They experience constant fear e. g. of losing their job. They may be very tense. They feel hopeless. They have a sense of impending doom. Every small problem is discouraging. Minor difficulties seem overwhelming and insurmountable.

      The altered emotional state of a mercury intoxicated person leads to impaired interpersonal relationships. They become increasingly irritable and sensitive, reacting strongly to relatively innocent remarks. They may not be able to take orders, instructions, or suggestions without losing their temper. They resent criticism and may interpret innocent remarks critically. They may have an exaggerated response to stimulation and become fearful or anxious and nervous. They may project their fears and anxieties onto others, making inappropriate criticisms or attacks. They become shy and avoid dealing with strangers. While timid, they may unexpectedly lose self control with strangers. They may wish to visit with friends and family extensively, often wishing to engage in long, repetitive conversations, then withdraw for prolonged periods of time. They withdraw more and more from social contacts.

      Intelligence gradually deteriorates. Previously bright persons become dull and slow in thinking. They suffer from a progressive decline specifically affecting short term memory as well as the faculties for logical reasoning. Thus their ability to do things like balance the checkbook, do math, or play chess suffers. They lose the ability to concentrate. Memory problems may be more from distractability and inability to concentrate and pay enough attention to get things INTO their memory than an actual failure to remember things (thus they may complain of memory problems but do well on memory tests). They cease being motivated towards their work or other tasks. Thoughts become heavy, repetitive and pedantic. Creative thinking becomes progressively more difficult, eventually becoming impossible. They become unable to select the right words to convey their meaning, and make stylistic and grammatical errors. Their ability to express themselves declines progressively.

      There is a distinctive cognitive symptom of being unable to think clearly without great effort. The best description for people who have not experienced it is of a hangover without pain. People who have experienced it will recognize the term "brain fog" as entirely descriptive.

      As the victim's level of intoxication waxes and wanes they go through periods of life when they do or do not dream. Dreaming may be in black and white.

      Early physical symptoms include dizziness, tinnitus (ringing in the ears), insomnia, daytime drowsiness, loss of appetite, a tendency towards diarrhea - often alternating with constipation, cold hands and feet, a tendency towards sweating (some people have the opposite symptom and do not sweat at all), flushing or reddening of the skin - particularly on the face and neck. Some people blush frequently, but others do not blush at all. Asthma is a symptom of chronic mercury poisoning. Digestive disturbances are also common.

      The skin becomes dry, athlete's foot and toenail fungus progress, and the insides of the ankles, particularly behind the ankle bone and a bit above it become dry, itchy, flaky and peel. This often becomes painful and annoying enough to keep the victim up at night. Even after fungus and yeast infection has been eliminated hyperkeratosis, often with papular erythema and itching are common.

      The hair becomes thinner, dryer, duller, less strongly colored, slower growing, and more brittle.

      The biological clock is disturbed. Waking up late and staying up late is more common than being an "early bird." Try as they might, the mercury poisoned person simply cannot control their circadian rhythm.

      Victims may become photophobic and find bright light uncomfortable and unpleasant. There may be visual disturbances, including alterations in color perception leading to reduced sensitivity to the color red, or color blindness. The ability to focus on distant objects may be sporadically impaired. Peripheral vision may be reduced in the most severe cases.

      The hands and feet often become distinctly cold. This can occur suddenly and is most distinctive when combined with sweating. Later in more severe poisoning they may also tingle or lose feeling.

      The effects of mercury on the mouth are receding, sometimes spongy gums that bleed easily and teeth that are 'loose' in their sockets and can be wiggled very slightly. It also causes excessive salivation and unusually bad breath.

      Mercury interferes with the sense of smell which becomes less acute, and later with hearing, in which perception of sounds does not diminish as notably as the patient's ability to understand and interpret them - e. g. to understand speech directed at them even though they hear it clearly.

      Victims often experience discomfort that feels like a "tight band around their head." They may also experience sharp points of discomfort in their ear canals at bedtime.

      Mercury also interferes with the body's ability to regulate temperature. Victims may alternate between being hot and cold when the temperature isn't changing, or have to wear more clothes than other people, or have more difficulty than other people in staying comfortable while the temperature changes. Temperature disregulation also leads to 'night sweats.'

  48. QUESTION:
    Is having toenails that look like Fritos™ a good enough reason to dump someone?
    Family & Relationships > Singles & Dating > Toenails and Fungus > Velociraptor talons
    Fritos are corn chips.

    • ANSWER:
      I was granted a divorce on just such grounds, CF:
      My last husband thought it a hilarious joke to make a hole in the bottom of Fritos bags and poke his feet through - offering our unsuspecting dinner guests a taste of his "cheesy morsels".
      Admittedly no one could've foreseen a toenail actually snapping off and being ingested by a visitor before anyone could prevent it - but our local vicar almost choked to death that fateful night and now, even as a devout Christian, cannot find it in his heart to forgive either one of us.
      Don't be tainted by your partner's foot shame, CF:
      It's time to give her the boot - even if she is a "fun gal".

  49. QUESTION:
    how can i remove a toe nail on my own?
    the middle toe's toe nail. coz i kinda hav a fungus thing lol

    dont tell me not to, or 2 go to a toe doctor or watever coz i wont listen

    just help me do it mmk?
    i dont have money for over the counter medicine, why do u think im doing this on my own

    • ANSWER:
      I had fungus on the second toe of each foot and would ALWAYS pull off the nail when I was younger. It NEVER helped. All it did was get infected and bloody. Your toe is going to grow back with fungus because the fungus lives underneath the nail bed, not in the nail itself. So even if you pull off your toenail, you still need to get under the nail bed to reach the fungus.

      Regardless, since you don't want reasoning, what you should do is soak your feet and get the nails very soft, then pull the nail off with tweezers and nailclippers. How you do that is up to you. If you can handle it in one rip, tear it off. Or if you need to slowly pull it off at the corners.

      But it is going to hurt and you bleed a lot.

      There are plenty of anti-fungal products available over the counter for this.

  50. QUESTION:
    is soriasis is a dangerous disease?
    it is a skin disease.found hairy part in the body.itching is there.

    • ANSWER:
      No Psoriasis is a common skin condition where the skin develops areas that become thick covered with silvery scales. It is a common problem, and millions of people in the United States have psoriasis. The course of psoriasis is quite variable, but in most sufferers it is a chronic problem that continues for years. The presence of psoriasis can cause emotional distress.

      Info on Psoriasis v
      Psoriasis is considered a skin disease, but really it is the result of a disordered immune system. The T-cells, a type of white blood cell, become over-stimulated. They then direct the skin to try and "heal" a non-existent injury. The skin reacts the same way it does when it has a fungus infection; it grows very fast, trying to "grow" the infection off the skin. These areas become the reddened, inflamed, patches with white scale on them.

      There are several ways psoriasis can start. In most sufferers, the tendency to get psoriasis is inherited. It is not passed on in a simple, direct way like hair color, but involves multiple genes. For this reason, it is not always clear from whom one inherited it. Inherited psoriasis usually starts in older childhood or as a young adult. Sometimes, especially in children, a virus or strep throat triggers brief attacks of tiny spots of psoriasis.

      In middle-aged older adults, a non-hereditary type of psoriasis can develop. This changes more rapidly than the inherited form, varying in how much skin is involved more unpredictably. Most types of psoriasis show some tendency to come and go, with variable intensity over time.

      Psoriasis flare-ups may be triggered by changes in climate, infections, stress, excess alcohol, a drug-related rash and dry skin. Medications may trigger a flare up weeks to months after starting them. These include non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (Indocin, Advil, Feldene, others), blood pressure (beta-blockers such as Tenormin, Inderal), oral steroids such as prednisone, or depression (lithium).

      Psoriasis tends to be worst in those with a disordered immune system for other reasons (cancer, AIDS or autoimmune disease). Psoriasis areas are worsened by scratching and minor skin injuries or irritations. Psoriasis may itch or burn. It most often occurs over the elbows, knees, scalp, lower back, and palms or soles of the feet. The skin may split or crack in areas that bend.

      There are several forms of psoriasis. The most common form shows reddened areas a few inches across covered by silvery scales. Dermatologists refer to the affected areas as areas as "plaques". Other patterns psoriasis can appear in are "inverse" (shiny, red patches in areas of friction such as in the folds of skin in the groin, the armpits or under the breasts), pustular (blisters of noninfectious pus on red skin), or "erythrodermic" (reddening and scaling of most of the skin).

      Psoriasis may also affect some of the joints causing discomfort and restricted motion, and even distortion. This occurs in about 10 percent of people with psoriasis. This is called "psoriatic arthritis". It often affects only a few fingertips, but in some it can be severe and widespread. It also may affect the fingernails, toenails and the mucous membranes lining the genitalia and mouth.

      Treatment is based on the severity of the disease and it's responsiveness to prior treatments. The lowest level of treatment is topical medicine are applied to the skin, the next level involves treatments with ultraviolet light (phototherapy) and finally, taking medicines internally. Treatments from each level are often combined, or switched around every 12 to 24 months to reduce resistance and adverse reactions.

      A treatment that is effective in one person may fail in another. Both trial-and-error and personal preferences often guide treatment. Over time, psoriasis tends to resist its treatments. The locations, size and amount of psoriasis, prior treatments, and the specific form of the disorder are factored into treatment decisions.

toenail fungus reasons

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